Serious Action in Energy Sector
Energy has very important role in ensuring the continuity of the world economy. Disruption of energy supply to a particular country will soon affect to the world economy rapidly. Moreover, if the energy problem occurs in major industrial countries, it will influence soon the world economics. Currently, besides facing the effects of global warming or climate change as a result of the use of fossil energy or non renewable energy, the world is also seriously discussing the issues of limited energy sources.
As a country integrated into the world economic system, Indonesia cannot escape out of the energy problem. Planning is the key word here. Errors in planning national energy availability will have a direct impact to the national development itself. There are no exceptions to the state which still has a lot of energy resources even as Indonesia. Please note here that since 2004, especially for crude oil, Indonesia could actually referred to as the oil importing countries because oil demand has exceeded their ground from which it generates itself, although for natural gas and coal are still sufficient for national energy demand, even able to export.
There should also be noted, according to data released by British Petroleum in 2009 that until the end of 2008, Indonesia fossil energy reserves will be exhausted within a period of 10.2 years for crude oil, 45.7 years for natural gas, and coal for 19 years. This of course assuming there is no discovery of new reserves to keep production levels.
But it must be remembered, too, the volume of consumption of primary energy consumption of Indonesia still exceed. From the facts on the International Energy Annual report 2006 issued by the Energy Information Agency (U.S.), 94.5% of primary energy consumption of Indonesia is still relying on all types of fossil energy. In the composition, state of Indonesia is still quite good when compared to Malaysia (97.7%), Thailand (97.1%), but far behind the Philippines (75.9%). That means, the Philippines has more to process new sources of energy into the composition of primary energy compared to the three countries. Of course, by volume, the energy consumption of Indonesia is still far more than the three neighboring countries.
With the same data source, the composition are still much non-renewable energy because 60.0% is still dependent on oil, 21.1% from natural gas, and coal for 13.5%, while 5.5% of renewable energy from hydropower 2.3% and 3.2% PLTB. If back to the year 1998 as the end of the new order (Soeharto regime) and the beginning of the reform period, the ratio of energy resources are both pretty much almost the same even slightly better, namely 94.8% for non-renewable energy and 5.2% for renewable energy. In the composition, especially the 53.2% of crude oil, 30.1% from natural gas, and 11.5% from coal, as well as each of 3.0% and 2.2% from hydropower and renewable energy PLTB for.
Now, let us see the energy consumption in all sectors in “Indonesia Energy Outlook and Energy Statistics 2006”, issued by the Energy Studies University of Indonesia. The projected energy consumption in all four sectors in 2006 placed the Industry sector as the top ranks 44.1%, followed by the Transport sector 36.7%, and remaining 15.4% and 3.9% are for Housing for Business. Both industry and transport sectors accumulated 80.8%. If traced further back, the energy consumption is very diverse for industry sectors, namely petroleum 34.9%, gas 27.7%, coal 22.4%, 4.5% renewable energy and electricity 10.6%. Meanwhile, Transport sector is dominated by oil and the remaining 99.5% of natural gas. Meanwhile, more business sectors more dependent on electricity for 62.1%, the remaining petroleum 29.2%, 7% renewable energy and natural gas 0.4%. Household sector is more dominated by renewable energy (biomass) of 73.1%, petroleum 19.3%, electricity 7.5%, 0.1% and gas.
Moved from the seriousness of the energy problems, the government issued a National Energy Policy which is poured into the Presidential Regulation No. 5 Year 2006. It is described the composition of the primary energy target of Indonesia in 2025. The targets are included; oil consumption is less than 20%, natural gas more than 30%, coal for more than 33%, biofuel is more than 5%, geothermal energy is more than 5%, new and renewable energy (such as biomass, nuclear, hydropower , solar, and wind energy) to more than 5%, and liquefied coal to more than 2%. If the biofuel and geothermal are grouped into new and renewable energies, that means this group is expected to be 15%. That means, 85% of energy consumption in the year 2025 Indonesia will still rely on a combination of oil, natural gas and coal (read: non-renewable energy).
Of course, the interesting things here is the question “Can a national energy policy goals were achieved by looking at the current composition of energy?” Obviously, it can be concluded that the dependence of Indonesia’s primary energy to non renewable energy is very unusual. After eight years of reform (1998-2006), not so many changes achieved. It must be realized that, sooner or later the fossil energy will be exhausted. It is very dangerous for energy security issue if it is still very large dependence on them. That energy security is a guarantee of security of energy supplies to support sustainable development, should have become a serious problem. Well, actually it is not so difficult to answer the question above. The only answer is “energy efficiency” and “renewable energy“. The difficulty is how to make it happen. To realize it, just keep focus and seriousness.
Energy efficiency can be implemented in all sectors, but would be felt at all if the industry sector is more serious to do. In addition, the Government should also focus more on reducing the wasteful industry in energy consumption but economically small contribution and greater impact to the environmental damage. In the Transportation sector, energy efficiency can be done by immediately improving mass transportation systems and fast, which aim to reduce reliance on private vehicles that are not efficient, exacerbates congestion and air pollution with all the other social impacts.
Based on data from the Department of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM), the average daily solar radiation reaching 4.8 kWh/m2, can be converted into thermal energy and electrical energy using solar thermal and photovoltaics technology (solar cells), wind speed average some coastal areas reaching 3-6 m/sec is suitable for developing wind turbine 10-100 kW, micro hydro spread in almost all regions in Indonesia reaching 450 MW, with 252 geothermal locations (Sumatra, Java, Nusa Tenggara, Sulawesi, others) which can provide 27 GW, and biomass of 50 GW. Now, the next concern is how to overcome the existing obstacles such as investment, the difficulty of location, technology, in order to optimize utilization of those resources. With the clean development mechanism between countries, those problems should not be the main obstacle. The main obstacle is actually depend on how serious Indonesia to develop those resources. If not serious, the opportunities will be taken by other countries.
Hopefully, the new government will feel more aware and not too late to realize the national energy goals by 2025 and it can be achieved even more than expected. Let us accomplish together.