Since 1980, the Government of China has consistently promoted the development of renewable energy. In the year 2005, renewable energy (including traditional biomass energy) has been accounting for 8% of total primary energy consumption. Specific electrical energy alone, the production of renewable energy has almost reached 16% of total electricity production in China. Since the enactment of Renewable Energy Law on January 1, 2006, the renewable energy industry has become a point of serious concern in China.
With the contribution of carbon emissions by 20.6% of the entire world’s total carbon emissions, whether the development of renewable energy is so important to do in China? To answer these questions, move more helpful to first discuss the potential for renewable energy development that is owned by China.
Wind Energy: China’s wind resources are relatively abundant. China has the potential to develop wind energy for 253 GW for on shore and to 750 GW of shore. In total, the potential for wind power in China could reach 1000 GW. At least, this time China has about 20 manufacturing industries in the wind power sector in China. In fact, China was able to master the manufacture of wind turbines the size of 750 kW or less, and now China is developing MW scale wind turbines. There are several MW scale wind turbine being tested since 2005. The Chinese government has a target of 5GW scale wind farm and 30GW in 2010 and 2020. Even in the year 2030 capacity of wind power has reached 150-200 GW. This achievement will make wind power as a source of electrical energy the third largest after the coal and water power.
Photovoltaic: China has extremely rich solar energy resources. In analytical calculations, the total solar radiation reaching the entire mainland China each year is 5×1022 joules, or equivalent 1.700×106 tons tons of coal. Who received radiation area in China is the highest plateau in the Qinghai Tibet. Technology photovoltaic (PV) is the main technology used in China for the generation of electricity from solar energy. In the end of 2005, installed PV capacity reached 70 MW, approximately 50% is used to supply electricity to remote rural residents. PV grid connected systems is being developed and the largest in Shenzhen for 1 MW. For up to 2010, China’s targeted the utilization of PV just for moving the industry in remote areas. Even so, the total capacity could reach 350MW. In the medium term, it will be developed into PV grid connected PV system that would have contributed more in power generated from renewable energy in China. At least, the total capacity of PV power will reach 2GW. From the point of long-term development, PV became one of important energy providers and industrial mover in China.
Solar Thermal: Until the year 2005, China already has the capacity of solar water heating for 15 million square meters. An annual increase of this energy is by 28% in the ten years since 1995. The Industry of solar water heaters in China is capable of absorbing 150,000 workers with less than 1000 companies. Further develop China-glass vacuum tube technology is more sophisticated with higher efficiency than flat plate collector technology. Estimated in 2020 and 2050, total installed capacity of solar water heaters to 300 million and 500 million square meters. This is very potential for energy saving as much as 180×106 kWh in and 300×106 year 2020 kWh in 2050. Solar thermal installed capacity will be expected 120 GW in 2020 and 200 GW in 2050.
So, from the explanation, the question above can be answered that China has a great potential in developing and exploring its renewable energy because China has large availability of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy becomes very important in China because it can supply more energy, open more employments and create more industries. Those only happen with the great a great desire of the government of China for renewable energy.