"Notes of INDUSTRY & ENERGY"

What is Biogas?

Biogas is a gas produced from the digestion of organic materials in an oxygen-free environment (anaerobic) fermentation, which is called Anaerobic Digester. Biogas is composed of 60 to 70 % methane and 30 to 40 % carbon dioxide (CO2) and the rest portion are other gases. Biogas can be used for direct combustion in cooking or lighting applications or to power combustion engines for motive power or electricity generation. Methane also can be extracted from Landfills, but anaerobic digestion is far more efficient for the same waste source.

Blue Flame of Gas

Blue Flame of Gas

One of the main attractions of biogas technology is its ability to generate biogas out of organic wastes that are abundant and freely available. Any biodegradable organic material can be used as inputs for processing inside Biogas digester, such as agricultural waste, farm waste or excess manure (pig, cattle, chicken). For economic and technical reasons, some materials are more preferred as inputs than others. There are some considerations to decide the materials, such as; easy to find and easy to biodegradable, application of slurry as fertilizer, and etc.

Designing a Biogas Digester is dependent upon digester temperature apply, pH, fermentation or retention time and the feedstock material. Digester temperature and pH are the most important factor in maintaining the bacteria for digestion. There are two system of Biogas Digester. Batch type digesters are preferred to treat a large amount of material at once and can be applied for large scale application. Continuous flow units add and remove waste material on a daily or regular basis and fit for small-scale domestic applications.

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