Employment from Energy Sector
I have prepared this note in the beginning of the President and Vice President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono – Boediono, around October 2009. This note was triggered by the spirit that Indonesia should be more serious in developing the potential of energy, which also provide jobs, with more focus to the commercial sector. I think this article is still relevant to the present government, Joko Widodo – Jusuf Kalla.
= Happy reading ==
Indonesia Energy overview: Commercial sector more generally shaped storey building, consisting of Hotel, Restaurant, Hospital, and Shopping Center, which its contribution for income of a region cannot be ignored. Energy consumption of the commercial sector is more dominated by the use of electricity from PLN (State electricity company) itself or from the generator fuel oil. Besides electricity, restaurants and hotels also require fuel oil and gas for cooking matters. Its final energy consumption is only 3.9%, far smaller than the industrial sector (44.1%), transport sector (36.7%), and the housing sector (15.4%) (PEUI, 2006).
It should be noted that Indonesia is not the oil exporting country now. Faktanya, since 2004 Indonesia has become the oil importing countries because of declining production while oil consumption continues to increase. If no action is supported by appropriate policies, it will be difficult to reduce oil dependence from the 60% atau 94.6% of all fossil fuels, which consists of petroleum, natural gas, dan batubara (EIA, 2006).
Jadi, what can we do with this situation?
Untapped potential in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Without we realize, because of public was so pampered with the services in commercial sectors, resulted inefficiencies in the national energy consumption. Example, it can be seen from the increasing numbers of services that cover the shopping center late at night and some even operate 24 hours. Likewise with several banks that opened the service until Saturday. Is not this a waste? When viewed from the side relevant parties in the commercial sector, what is done is not a waste. Namun Begitu, if studied extensively in the national spectacles, then it is a waste. This is the chance for energy efficiency!
Sejauh ini, no regulations are requiring the commercial sector to provide their own electrical energy. Even if a generator of electricity, and even then the nature reserve is only used in emergencies such as broken electricity supply. Memang, generate their own electricity is more expensive than buying one to PLN.
Faktanya, the roof of the building that most of the commercial sector is still empty can actually serve as a potential to produce electrical energy with solar cell technology (photovoltaic), and even can use it as a façade. Specifically for hospitals and hotels who need hot water, Solar thermal technology can also be as main hot water source and gas boiler or gas heater or electric heater as the backup.
Solar cell and solar thermal are not only able to provide cheap and clean energy, but also able to provide employment, ranging from investment to operation & maintenance. Untuk informasi, one of the most advanced countries in the utilization of renewable energy in Europe is Germany. The contribution of renewable energy is 9.8% (2007) of the total Germany final energy consumption by providing as much 278.000 employment (2008). Photovoltaic provided 57.000 employments and solar thermal 17.400 employments (FKZ, 2008).
Serious action required by Indonesia Government: Judging by numbers only, the commercial sector is not attractive. Namun Begitu, if we are creative to analyze the existing problems, so it has potential. This potential will drive the energy efficiency and renewable energy. To do it, we need “policy”. Dengan Baik, what kind of policy does it meant?
Clearly, we need a policy to examine the operating hours of commercial sector services. The point is how we optimize all available resources in a few specific days of the week and specific hours in one day. Sebagai contoh, a bank must be optimized hours a day from Monday to Friday, the shopping center open for 12 hours from 9 am until the hour of 9 pm Monday – Saturday. This certainly should be decided by the horns after depth study of all aspects.
The next policy is the necessity to use the roof of the building as a producer of energy from renewable energy. Tentu saja, there must be a certain ratio between the numbers of electrical energy to be purchased by PLN with electrical energy generated from Photovoltaic own. So is the ratio of hot water needs of non-renewable energy with renewable energy.
To move the policy, the government also needs to encourage by providing certain incentives policy, such as investment subsidies as well as successfully implemented by Japan and Germany, tax breaks given, and higher price to sell the electricity to PLN if it is generated from photovoltaic (feed in tariffs) as well as also successfully implemented by German.
Accordingly, the Government also had to stimulate the creation of industries based on renewable energy, such as photovoltaic and solar thermal industry. The government could invite foreign investors from countries that already have the technology, such as Germany, Jepang, and USA.
All the policies are expected to national energy efficiency, reduce dependence on fossil fuels, and also open more employments.
Let us wait for the real and serious actions from the new Government, Joko Widodo – Jusuf Kala, to continue the effort of SBY – Boediyono in 2009 - 2014.